The sports hero’s journey

When advised to base stories on the hero’s journey, I realized that the “monomyth model” constructed plots based on a large sampling of Greek mythology. I’ve always had a suspicion that these myths were based on real people. The characters may have a super human exterior, but they exhibit all the flaws of humans. They are almost adolescent in their behavior, competing for status, like royalty that never had to grow up. But, the hero’s journey extends beyond the story we see in movies. The common people get even with these misbehaving heroes. At the end of most Greek myths the hero has a tarnished reputation or a pitiful downfall.

For example, Jason and the Argonauts fits wonderfully into the hero’s journey, at least the part that appears in most movies. Jason leaves the land ruled by his cruel and deceitful uncle Pelias. He leads the adventurous Argonauts to an unfamiliar country in Southwest Asia to steal a treasure known as the Golden fleece (an obvious MacGuffin as the pure gold fleece is a bit too heavy to make any kind of garment out of it). Pelias believes Jason is doomed to fail which is his major reason for sending him on this quest. Instead, the lucky Jason meets a gorgeous sorceress named Medea. With her assistance he secures this intensely guarded fleece, and then heads back to his homeland to claim the throne with Medea by his side.

Note the similarity of this plot to stories of athletes rising in their career. They leave home to compete in a new place with the odds against them. However, with a coach’s guidance, teammate’s support or the inspiration of an adoring woman they pull through, win against an unbeatable team and return home victorious.

But, Jason’s return to home with Medea is the beginning of his downfall. The end to this story is not often told in the movies. It is similar to the slide into obscurity of many athletes’ years after their big wins. The locals distrust Jason’s powerful wife, Medea. After a few years they drive out their new king and queen. Jason and Medea flee to Corinth where Jason is still considered a hero. That local king offers his daughter, a younger and meeker woman than Medea, to Jason for a bride. He takes up the offer. Medea wreaks her revenge leaving Jason without a new bride or any children.

In sports literature successful athletes often face the challenge of their own conquests fading away. They may fall to the folly of hubris or the charms of the wrong kind of women. Why is this theme of losing status repeated in both mythology and novels about sports legends? There’s a kind of mournfulness to realizing that as an athlete your major accomplishments are over by the end of your twenties. This was also true of athletic warriors who rose to the rank of nobles in ancient times.

The creators of these stories have to make a decision. Should they blindly close their eyes and be happy stuck in one time or be truthful about what happens next? Ending with the physical prowess of youth, leaves the author with a character stuck in immaturity. The authors really want them to grow up, even if the ending is bittersweet.

Posted in Characters, Drama and movies, Literary devices, Story structure, Writer's resource, Writing trends | Tagged | Leave a comment

Sports Lit

While watching a recent bone crunching pro-football game on TV, I saw a player dive into a fracas and come up with the fumbled football. He took off for his goal, running for the sidelines to avoid being pummeled by a pile of opposing players.  When the TV camera zoomed in close, I could see his grin as his teammates gave him congratulatory fists to his helmet. However, it looked like that punch jarred his head as much as a tackle.

“Doesn’t that hurt him?” I asked.

“Players frequently do things to their own players that would result in a penalty if they did it to an opponent,” responded a wiser sports aficionado.  

Based on that incident, I decided to look at classic sports novels to trace the development of this kind of reputation, only to find few sports novels written before the second half of the twentieth century. So, I examined some well-known non-fiction books on this subject as well. Many of the current books reveal a darker side to sports than the painful celebratory punches by team members.

There are a few light-hearted views of athletes such in George Plimpton’s Paper Lion, a real account of how he gained access into the Detroit Lions’ training camp practices. Plimpton wanted to find out how an average guy would fare competing against professional athletes. Although the coaches were aware that he was not a true recruit, the players were not, at least until his obvious ineptitude was revealed. Plimpton’s book deals mainly with the personalities of the players as he was never allowed to play in a real game.

Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team and a Dream is a candid coverage of one dramatic season for the Permian High School Panthers as they aim at the Texas State Championship. H.G. Bissinger describes how the town gathers ritualistically every Friday during the autumn season to cheer on its team who obtain a kind of instant celebrity. But, a surprising number of the football players suffer from their attempts at athletic fame. There are painful revelations about injured players, forgotten as soon as they are no longer useful. In an ironic twist, the championship title becomes dependent on disproving a charge of grade tampering.

Many of the current “true stories” in sports describe a litany of gambling, dirty dealing and drugs that make opponents seem like the least of the athlete’s worries. Those are the themes that run through famous fictional sports novels, too. Fat City by Leonard Gardner is an acclaimed novel about the life of small circuit boxers set in California. Tully, a major character in the novel, decides to return to the boxing ring. But, his experience is nothing like Rocky Balboa’s comeback. In this gritty novel aspiring boxers have a few wins before descending down a path of desperation.

One of the most well-known and beloved sports novels is The Natural by Bernard Malamud. This fictional work is loosely based on the life of Eddie Waitkus. Readers may want to cheer on this talented athlete in his second attempt at glory in baseball. However, this novel has an edgier and more realistic ending than fireworks-filled home run in the popular movie. The baseball prodigy, who loses his best years, is a reckless character that struggles in an attempted comeback. There is no assurance that he can win the big game for the pennant. But, the novel doesn’t end with the game.

All of these books have been made into movies. However, it is worth the time to read them for their further insights. In the twentieth century, the heroes of the playing field have replaced the old heroes of battle. There is still a darker side of competition that remains to be told.

Posted in Drama and movies, Nonfiction, Trends in books, Writer's resource, Writing trends | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Keeping the unknown a mystery

I was engrossed in a mystery that grabbed me from the beginning. Set in the mid nineteenth century it commenced with a spooky chase scene in the fog. The shadow-like suspect disappeared around the corner of a stately brownstone. Then, a person vanished when surrounded by crowds and nobody seemed to notice. Was I dealing with an ingenious criminal or something supernatural?  To add to the tension, the hero still agonized about the loss of a recent love as he attempted to buckle down and catch this person-snatcher. 

The villain turned out to be all too human, both extremely narcissistic and cruel. Unfortunately he was still more intelligent than the protagonist. So, he kept on feeding the poor man clues that a villain shouldn’t have to spread around so carelessly. I knew these clues came directly from the antagonist because half of the way through the book, I was introduced to his viewpoint. The villain’s willingness to give himself away was blamed on the “insane” genius. But, it was a ruse to keep the tension high in the story. The author was no genius and seemed to have forgotten that glimpses of the villain were seen only by the readers. However, the protagonist became clairvoyant, magically deducing whatever was revealed to me.

 Perhaps I am being too hard on this piece of fiction because I am not as fond of suspense as traditional mysteries. A good mystery is not easy to write. If it has a plot that is too complex, many of the readers will fail to grasp the elaborate twists and turns. If the plot is simpler, it is harder to hold some reader’s attention. It takes skill to create a book that keeps the reader in suspense for an entire 300 pages and then reveals an answer that makes sense but was never obvious. But, a quality suspense novel, in which the viewpoints of both the protagonist and antagonist are revealed, is even more difficult.

Perhaps my favorite suspense author is Daphne du Maurier. Her stories are often disquieting without anything gruesome or horrifying mentioned because of her subtle way of creating scenes with a threatening mood. However, what makes her style of suspense distinctive is playing both with the characters and plot. Events unfold in a way that makes the reader question motives of people in her stories. One character is slowly revealed as a different kind of person than the reader suspected. But, is that truly what is occurring? The reader remains unsure if they have an accurate idea of the character’s real nature. Is she honest or deceptive? Sometimes this is revealed in the end, and sometimes the question is never answered. 

I know that last option will not be satisfying to some readers. But, as I think about what I expect of the ultimate suspense, I realize that I don’t want to know who will win. As I read about two people engaged in a cat and mouse game, what really holds my attention until the end is not knowing which one is the hero, and which is the villain.

Posted in Literary devices, Story structure, Style and voice, Writer's resource, Writing trends | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Dueling Detectives

When Edgar Allen Poe published Murders in the Rue Morgue in 1841 the murder mystery was a relatively new genre. He wrote a few more of these increasingly popular detective stories. However, In 1849 he was found wandering injured and delirious through the streets of Baltimore. The brilliant writer never regained a clear enough mind to explain what had happened to him. He died a few days later leaving a real unsolved mystery. 

Poe’s fictional detective, C. Auguste Dupin, gained some attention, too. Another author even took a few pot shots at him in his own first murder mystery entitled A Study in Scarlet. Anyone familiar the murder mystery genre will recognize that novel as the one introducing Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson to the world in 1887. Arthur Conan Doyle, a medical doctor and aspiring author, used a real inspiration for Sherlock Holmes. His consulting detective had such a striking resemblance to a surgical instructor at the University of Edinburgh Medical School that many of Doyle’s contemporaries realized he modeled Holmes after Joseph Bell. 

These two authors of mysteries introduced some of the staples of this genre. The calling card, the modus operandi (or M.O.), and the motive. The calling card is also called the signature aspect in criminology. It is a quirky behavior or an eccentric ritual that seems to exhibit pure hubris. It is often the item that marks crimes committed by the same perpetrator. In A Study in Scarlet, the word “rache” (German for revenge) is written in blood near the victim.

Modus operandi is Latin for method of operation describing the character’s preferred way of interacting with others to carry out their crimes. Non-criminals also have M.O.s. Consider two different teenage boys in their attempts to attract a certain teenage girl. One may decide a show of physical strength, such as pelting a rival with a football, to gain attention from the female. The other, who uses his wit may point out the disproportionate number of felons in the NFL after the pelting incident. 

Motive is the reason that drives a criminal (or any character) to act. Simply being crazy is not a real motive, but the character must be seeking a specific reward from the crime. The rationale for committing crimes tends to remain constant while the M.O. is not completely fixed but can change over time. Often criminals gain confidence and becomes more daring. However, there still needs to be a reason, or an event that causes the shift in the M.O. 

Calling card, modus operandi, and motive are not just reserved for suspects in murder mysteries.  Fictional characters take on their own personalities when you remember to consider each of these features. These aspects don’t make characters completely predictable, otherwise criminals would be easier to catch, but they do make characters more memorable.

Posted in Story structure, Trends in books, Writer's resource, Writing trends | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Getting the Utopian Novel Right

H.G. Wells kept trying to get the utopian novel right. His novel A Modern Utopia has a fictional framework–the protagonist meets a man from a perfect society on a distant island. The book is really a philosophical essay describing the economy, the rights of women, etc. on this mythical  island. In the Days of the Comet, H.G. Wells chronicles how an exploding comet from outer space wipes out the capitalist powers. Then, surviving humankind rebuilds the world correctly. Finally, he set Men Like Gods  in a parallel universe, and wrote the sequel, called the Future of Things. These do not read like novels but imaginary future histories.

However H.G. Well’s fame rests on stories like The Time Machine. The main character crosses eons in time to land in a distant future of dainty people in an Eden-like setting. A utopia? Not at all. These pretty little people lack concern for each other and are terrified of the dark. Finally, the veil is lifted to reveal that these people serve as livestock for the subterranean dwellers. The book is occasionally philosophical; the main character imagines how an upper class becomes dependent on a lower class until there is a shift in power. However, he spends a lot more time running from the subterranean people than thinking about their origin.

On the other hand, American journalist Edward Bellamy’s most famous work was his utopian novel, Looking Backward. Published in 1888, it was a commercially successful book and the publisher, Houghton Mifflin & Company, struggled to keep up with demand. In this futuristic novel the main character, Julian West, falls into a Rip Van Winkle-like sleep and wakes up 113 year later in the year 2000. This new world is without private property or money, which seems to have also eliminated war, poverty, and crime.  

Has any author actually managed to write about a utopia with character development, rising and falling action, conflict, crisis and all those other reasons that I read books? Actually two of my favorites are Out of the Silent Planet by C.S. Lewis, and Lost Horizons by James Hilton. In each case the main character doesn’t search out or stumble upon the land of contented people but is kidnapped and taken there against his will. Naturally, they view the place with some suspicions. They are from a world full of greed, hatred, and violence making it hard to imagine that a place without these is not hiding some dark secret.

So, how do you create a gripping drama in a practically perfect world? Introduce some very imperfect humans.

Posted in Creativity, Literary devices, Literature, Story structure, Trends in books, Writer's resource, Writing trends | Leave a comment

Dystopian Entertainment

The plethora of dystopian novels that involve putting teens into deadly trials has begun to disturb me. Starting with Hunger Games, which was similar to a YA version of the Running Man, the stories read like athletic competitions run amok. The teens are grouped into categories for what turns out to be a string of deadly competitions, often staged for the populace’s viewing pleasure. Dystopian literature is by no means new, and it has always been a bit disturbing but for different reasons. There are ancient texts that describe a future in which society is deeply flawed, and yet citizens continue to serve the powers that be, unaware of their enslavement. These works from past century works were warnings and not entertainment that resembled gladiator sports. 

The Russian author Yevgenv Zamyatin created a future world of complete human conformity in his novel We. He often receives credit as the modern inventor of this type of literature; however, Jack London published Iron Heel over a decade earlier. London’s book is a combination of a science fiction and political novel that fits the idea of a dystopia perfectly, even if it is not as futuristic as Zamyatin’s work. In London’s novel the rise of popular support for a socialist government is squelched by a dictatorship backed by political conservatives. It describes the effect of unscrupulous big business that results in an economic dystopia.

Many dystopian novels are based on ideas that reflect Zamyatin’s novel. They almost always take place in a future society. People often follow skewed ideals, which masquerade as the path to utopia. Enforced conformity is often the result of humans reacting to a perceived threat. The environment is frequently artificial as well, especially so in Zamyatin’s novel. People live in an urban setting constructed basically of glass making surveillance easy. This fear of being observed is a pervasive theme as the main character, D-503, begins to break with the uniformity required by the One State.

For the protagonist there is no going back. Once enlightened, the only options are to escape the society or die. The dystopian societies do not easily crumble as they do in the modern teen versions of governments gone awry. The dystopian society in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 is not brought down by those who wish to preserve books rather than destroying them. Instead these people flee the city that wishes to hunt them down before it goes up in the flames of war.

There are some dystopian novels aimed at YA which are not designed around war games. The desire to erase the memory of an unpleasant past is what leads to the twisting of a society into a dystopia that masquerades as a utopia in The Giver by Lois Lowry. There numerous incidents of planned euthanasia for the comfort of the society which refuses to allow pain. The Giver, a wise mentor and a young protagonist named Jonas, attempt to release the memories of pain back into society. This is foiled because Jonas has learned to love, so he must escape.

There is still hope for dystopias written with the courage to reveal what is wrong with our society by taking it to an extreme that still seems plausible. There are ones that are serious and not just combatant based. Of course anyone fond of getting adolescents together to fight only to have them turn against a corrupt regime should remember—none of these trials are as deadly as sending out eighteen-year-olds en masse to fight a war. We are still doing this in real life somewhere in the world within each generation.

Posted in Censorship, Creativity, Drama and movies, Literary devices, Literature, Millennials, Trends in books, Writer's resource, Zoomers | Leave a comment

Fairy Tale or Dystopia?

The desire to be considered superior and above the crowd exists in most people. We try to ignore the fact that the majority of us are commoners. From time immemorial stories arise with the promise of reaching status by marrying into a royal family (or the case of Greek legends, marrying a god). The goal is to become the next ruler. This is the draw of mythology and fairy tales that made them so popular with ancient audiences. It is still reflected in innumerable fantasy stories from the twenty-first century.

However acceptance by the royal family (or pantheon) is not easy. The conflict occurs when some vicious person (often related to the royal family) gives the commoner an impossible task. The only way to accomplish this is by magic. So, it helps to make friends with wizards. Similar devices are used in the proliferation of dystopian stories with a happy ending. 

What is the difference between fairy tales and dystopian literature? The most recognizable one is fairy tales are set in the past and dystopias are set in the future. However, the government in both cases are ruled by a select few possessing far more power than any humans should have. There are basically no more absolute monarchs in the world, but we have a number of politicians with hopes to become absolute dictators. Dystopian writers draw on past and present dictatorships for their inspiration.

Fairy tales were traditionally read to children. However, the versions that most people know today have been sanitized. They are now lacking the gore and are more appropriate for a young audience. If you are familiar with the original stories collected by the Grimm brothers, you know they were quite grotesque. Perhaps fairy-tales were created for adults, the same audience for which most dystopian novels used to be written. 

If you’ve read both of these genres widely enough, you will find the number of vicious despots ruling over kingdoms is similar to the insidious people ruling over dystopian lands. Sometimes, the dystopian rulers mistakenly believe they are providing some benefit to humanity. So, their intentions are not as corrupt as Snow White’s stepmother.

In the modern dystopia aimed at adolescents, we know the commoners will be successful at overthrowing the oppressive government in the end. Often it is a modern technology that resembles sorcery that provides the upper hand in this battle. Sometimes the protagonist simply possesses multiple forms of giftedness. The hero in a dystopian novel almost never marries the heir to the throne, because the future country is ruled by a dictator and not by a wicked king or queen. But, the young hero often ends up in a similar position once the evil power is defeated–being groomed for leadership in the new order.

Posted in Creativity, Literary devices, Literature, Story structure, Trends in books, Writer's resource, Writing trends | Leave a comment

Emotionally intelligent characters?

Readers may seek out stories with a hero with greater than average athletic ability and high intelligence because they are drawn to the larger than life character who is strong or ingenious. However, when a reader asks for a character that exhibits more emotions are they asking for higher emotional intelligence or less of this ability. 

What exactly is emotional intelligence? Imagine that you are sitting down to a holiday dinner at which a number of friends and family have gathered. The host, Micaela is young, a bit nervous, rushing about trying to please the guests. Timidly she offers a plate of  finely ground patties, in a plate of brownbroth. When asked “What is it?” she responds smiling, “Pate foie gras… goose liver paste.” Sandy, sitting across the table momentarily curls up the side of her mouth in a sign of contempt.

Thoughts go rushing through your head. Did Micaela not see Sandy’s expression? Is she insulted by that look of disgust? Perhaps you should comment about what delicacy pate foie gras is to show your empathy for Micaela. But then, maybe Sandy finds force feeding geese a type of animal cruelty and the expression of disgust was an automatic gut response. Perhaps, you should encourage Sandy to speak up by reminding your host that some people may have ethical reasons not to eat this dish.

Part of emotional intelligence is the ability to read others feelings. This skill of quickly detecting emotions can provide helpful insights into other characters, a useful trait for a protagonist. Emotional intelligence can be welded as a weapon to point out rivals’ doubts that they thought they were concealing. It can be used to find the secret to persuading others to join one’s side, when there isn’t a real reason to do so. 

However, what most people refer to as an emotionally expressive character is one that shows emotions so blatantly no intelligence is required to read them. They clench their fist in a ball whenever anger strikes. One the other hand, a glowing grin spreads across their face to announce their happiness to the world.

Research on emotion recognition has shown that people who are skilled in reading feelings have often gained that ability to serve themselves, rather than others. People who exhibit the personality trait, exploitativeness, (part of the scale to measure narcissism) are as good at reading expressions or emotion as empathetic people are. Two studies at the University of Michigan resulted in this same conclusion. The major difference between subjects that scored higher in dispositional empathy and those that had narcissistic tendencies of a similar magnitude, is that the exploitative people could recognize negative emotions better. Researchers theorize that this enables them to detect vulnerability in others. [1]

People tend not to hide “positive” expressions of happiness and contentment as much as they conceal negative emotions involving anger, fear, disgust, etc. In the practical everyday realm the narcissists are better at reading hidden emotions. However, do readers really want narcissistic protagonists? Probably not. It seems like emotionally expressive characters are more naive and possess less emotional intelligence than the antagonists who are able to wield this trait to serve themselves. 

Back to the dinner table example… have you decided to empathize with the nervous host or disgusted guest? Perhaps considering the kind of person who can read negative emotions the best, you should just be quiet and not say anything at all.

[1] Konrath, S., Corneille, O., Bushman, B.J., and Luminet, O. The Relationship Between Narcissistic Exploitativeness, Dispositional Empathy, and Emotion Recognition Abilities Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, March 2014, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 129-143

Posted in Characters, Emotional intelligence, Literature, Trends in books, Writer's resource | Leave a comment

Longing for someplace unfamiliar

In grade school I would skim the readers for something intriguing, passing over  everyday stories of American life that were supposed to draw in readers with their familiarity. I yearned for tales of distant lands, places with unique landscapes, animals and customs. This was also my favorite fare when it came to fiction. 

As a junior high student I soaked up Jules Verne adventures in distant places such as the famed  Around the World in Eighty Days, 20,000 Leagues under the Sea and the lesser known Michael Strogoff: Courier of the Czar.  As an adult I discovered that my favorite junior high author chafed under the formulaic requirements imposed on him for writing his adventure novels. But, they were the right stories to get me hooked on reading at that time. Even today, Jules Verne’s most famous works are frequently remade as series and movies. 

Many American authors started their career by describing their travels. These works were often  largely autobiographical. However, seeing the rest of the world through new eyes resulted in more complex themes in their later novels. Three of the most famous American authors started off writing on long passages across the sea:

  • Herman Melville of Moby Dick fame, first wrote largely autobiographical works such as Redburn and White-Jacket to describe his adventures as a sailor.
  • Mark Twain wrote Innocents Abroad, a humorous view of the naiveté of Americans on a cruise to the Middle East and Life on the Mississippi to describe his own days as a river man. Both of these came before his most famous novel chronicling the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
  • Jack London wrote the purely adventurous John Barleycorn before completing The Call of the Wild and Sea-Wolf on which his fame rests.

Travelogs are also the works of a mature writers. John Steinbeck, widely known for his stories of the Great Depression, chronicled his 1960 trip across the country in Travels with Charley: In Search of America. Steinbeck didn’t simply describe the new scenery, he reflected on his own life, and the flood of changes that had washed over the country since he was a much younger man. 

Well known authors also record the journey’s of others. John Krakauer traced the path of a self-disenfranchised wealthy young college grad, Chris McCandles, as he attempted to reinvent himself in a quest to live a life off of the grid in Into the Wild. Despite this young man’s initial success, he followed the lure to go farther into the wild. His trek into Alaska ended up being deadly. 

I have found books about distant lands not just for entertaining. Stories using world building techniques in the world that actually exists are some of my favorites. Therefore, I have never outgrown my taste for both fiction and nonfiction books that take me to a part of the world where I have never been, and everything seems a bit strange.

Posted in Literature, Nonfiction, Trends in books, Writer's resource | Leave a comment

Critiquing myself

I grew up as a bookworm, constantly reading. My parents sometimes claimed that I spent my entire childhood with my nose in a book. But I didn’t learn how to read until I was five, so books had to have pictures in them before that time so I could make up the stories in my head. Essentially, I was withdrawing from the world and not learning how to deal with it. My parents did not mind if I read, just not all of my waking hours.

For me reading was entertaining and so was learning obscure facts from books. I recall hours spent reading our set of World Book encyclopedias. I checked out library books as often as I could. However, the real reading adventure occurred when we moved to another state. We leased the house of an education professor, and I found his personal library on an enclosed porch. The limerick book was amusing for a while. Gulliver’s Travels was a bit of a challenge. I thought that I understood most of that book, but did not discern the politics it portrayed.  

The time spent reading books was only as good as the books. My idea of a quality book changed over time. My choices morphed to more realism. I turned from the exciting, yet predictable adventures that I read as a young adolescent. I expected to learn more from reading and enjoyed a well written biography, or factual book as much as fiction. There are only so many fiction plots, and I have become more demanding of excellence in writing in the fictional realm.

The short stories I wrote in college were based on fables. However, the best one turned out to be very similar to my brief infatuation with a student who had promising ability as a great musician but would never become one. In my late twenties I started writing a novel based on my own experience in art school, and faltered for lack of a cohesive plot. My life simply did not have the exciting people and events that interesting books required. When my children were young I started writing short stories. I soon discovered that plots ripped straight from my own life were best and won contests.

Now I find myself at a crossroads. I hear people extol the popularity of mysteries, suspense and thrillers, or whatever one calls an action packed book where the hero tracks down a murderous villain, while dodging dangers. These are types of books I rarely read now, since I found myself repeating the same stories. I wish to take another direction in reading and also in writing. 

So, thirty years after I started writing, I realized the wonderful, imaginary things I wanted to put in the stories didn’t work as well as real life situations that took on my own perspective of the world. Character driven stories are time consuming and not easy to write, or easy to end. The only villain to conquer is the character’s drive to reach a worthy goal, one for which they are willing to sacrifice. Writing itself becomes a sacrifice, but still provides enough joy for me not to give up on it.

Posted in Literature, Self-awareness, Trends in books, Writer's resource | Leave a comment